England was our mother country. I looked out and suddenly realised that it was just beyond our wingtips, to the side. For instance, not many have seen images of the Caribbean Islands during World War, with many nations hosting American military bases. Billy described him as a real smooth Jeeves type: "I was a little coloured boy from the Caribbean and I instinctively called him Sir ". But on his fifteenth trip as a bomber pilot his nerve snapped: "I remember so clearly. They deployed h… So you had a bottle, you filled it up with paraffin and you put the cork in. It was when three or more came that racism really got sharp. When we think of the British Armed Forces, there is often a tendency to think exclusively of men. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers; the U.S having served 16 million men, Germany serving 13 million, the Soviet Union serving 35 million and Japan serving 6 million. I knew I simply couldnt go on - that this was the end of me as a pilot! In turn the next day Britain and France formally declared war against Germany and swore their allegiance as a result of defending democracy. The Bermudians had previously trained for the war in Europe. There were plenty Caribbean Women serving in WW2. I hadnt seen it at all - and I was the pilot! Out of a population of 14 million in the Caribbean colonies of the British Commonwealth, about So we were on our tenterhooks all the time.'. Enrico Tazzoli torpedoed Cygnet and the oil tanker Athelqueen. We were brought up to respect the Royal Family. The new regiment trained in Virginia, where the regiment was the first to celebrate the King's birthday in the U.S. since the American Revolution. ', [During the war] there was a mood of fear in Jamaica - they put the fear of God in us. It is estimated that the Soviet Unionlost 27 million military and civilians in World War II. In the past this has been largely due to the majority of Armed forces being made of almost entirely of men. The West India Committee has revealed its archive and collection from the First World War as a part of a Heritage Lottery Fund project. Improved Allied anti-submarine warfare eventually drove the Axis submarines out of the Caribbean region. We were definitely positively told that the Germans wanted us because we were a stepping stone to the coast of America. Many country parts of Jamaica in those days didnt have electricity. Britain's first Memorial to the African and Caribbean soldiers of the First and Second World Wars has been unveiled in London. Caribbean soldiers fought in both WW1 and WW2 The Caribbean soldiers were later praised for their high morale and cheerful demeanour in the … A few officers and non-commissioned Officers were also drafted in from British Army units. Of these, This was the last straw. Five Italian submarines patrolled the Atlantic side of the Lesser Antillies during Operation Neuland. Oh, yes! The regiment never saw front line action. Morosini torpedoed Stangarth and oil tankers Oscilla and Peder Bogen. In October, it escorted 4,000 German prisoners of war from Italy to Egypt, where it was used in mine clearance work around the Suez Canal area. On September 1st, 1939 Adolf Hitler and his German Nazi’s invaded Poland and attacked from their battle ship. World War Two Winston Murphy and Victor Brown became friends after joining the navy aged 16 They fought against Hitler and helped rebuild Britain - yet … well over a 100 were women who were posted overseas - 80 chose the WAAF (Womens Auxiliary Air Force) for their Caribbean Soldiers from WW2 Black Soldiers in WW2 In the early years of the second world war, Britain made frequent requests for help from its colonies. Newly recruited men were tested in Virginia for fitness. The West Indians that came from the Caribbean to World War 2 were approximately 50,000 including women who joined the Army Territorial Service (ATS). ". This was due partly to inadequate training (with only a single battalion, it had not trained as part of a larger brigade; the smallest unit the British Army normally fielded on its own) and partly because of the anticipated political impact in the British West Indies if heavy casualties had been incurred. Prior to the First World War, West Indian soldiers had been serving with the West India Regiment – an infantry unit in the regular British Army – since 1795. Then I flew back to the airfield. There and then my nerve went. Twelve Barbados men made up the Second Barbados Contingent of Volunteers for the Armed Forces. Photographs from the time show black soldiers … More than 2 million African and Caribbean Military Servicemen and Servicewomen’s participated in WWI and WWII but have not been recognized … Pilot Officer Strachan was famous for his hair-raising but clever way of escaping German fighters. contribution, while around 30 joined the ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service). Caribbean Participants in the Two World Wars. "No, Sir," he hastily corrected, "It is I who call you Sir.". At 5:00 that morning, a vast Italian army under orders from fascist dictator Benito Mussolini crossed the Mareb River and into Ethiopia where they ordered the people of the country to turn on their Emperor Haile Selassie.Those loyal to the emperor fought with all of their might to keep their country free from fascists, but the might of the Italian army was overwhelming. The regiment went overseas in July 1944 and saw service in the Middle East and Italy. The recruits were drawn from all over the British West Indies; most were members of local Volunteer Defence Forces. Against them were the allie… Like England, Jamaica is an island. We never thought it would happen to us. One man to respond was Billy Strachan. A descendent of U.S. military units dispatched to Panama in the early 20th Century, U.S. Southern Command’s history as a unified military headquarters began during World War II when U.S. planners established the U.S. Caribbean Defense Command. You turned the bottle over, the paraffin soaked the cork, you lit the cork, and that was your light for eating, for doing homework or anything. Following discussion between the Colonial Office and the War Office, the Caribbean Regiment was formed in April 1944 of 1,200 volunteers. Colonel H. Wilkin, OBE, MC, they prepared for the arrival of detachments from the West Indian islands, each under its own officers. A detachment of 104 officers and men from the Atlantic island of Bermuda, made up of volunteers (conscription had been introduced to Bermuda shortly after the declaration of war, but those who were drafted to the Caribbean Regiment volunteered to do so) from the Bermuda Militia Artillery and Bermuda Militia Infantry, arrived on two ships on 13 and 23 April 1944 to form the training cadre of the new regiment at Fort Eustis, a US Army base near Williamsburg, Virginia. African Caribbean Soldiers during World War 2. The regiment went overseas in July 1944 and saw service in the Middle East and Italy. You were loved and fêted. So if you are short of oil because the boat coming in was torpedoed, then the whole island has no oil. ', So we damn well knew there was a war on. Under the command of Lt. Billy learned so fast that he was allowed to fly solo after only seven hours training. A memorial to the African and Caribbean soldiers of World War one and World War Two has been unveiled in London. World War II Caribbean Islands: Jamaica (1939-45) Figure 1.--Here we see some of the U.S. sailors deployed on Jamaican making friends with the locals. An estimated two million African-Caribbean soldiers fought in … There had been resistance from the War Office to form the West Indian regiment, but those who made their own way to the UK were able to enlist in the British Army. ', Down in Kingston town, at a place they call Parade, they had two lists put up - a list of men reported missing and a list of men reported dead. They were recruited for the Royal Air Force. It was sheer luck. "I suppose we had the over-confidence of youth. Billy Strachan gained two more promotions to become Flying Officer and then Flight Lieutenant. But I had no problems in that respect. I know that some of us fared badly. The Germans were equipped with a substantial and well-organized general and soldiers causing Poland to surrender. 236 Caribbean volunteers were killed or reported missing during the Second World War; 265 were wounded. The Caribbean Colonies in the British West Indies contributed financially too. When Billy had survived 30 operations, he was entitled to a job on the ground. World War II Royal Air Force servicemen from the British West Indies, A. O. Weekes of Barbados (left), and A. Joseph of Trinidad (right), during World War II. And that list would go on and on - sometimes youd go and youd see the name of your cousin; youd go back a few days later and see your friends brother reported dead. I used to collect pictures of Margaret and Elizabeth, you know? Jamaica like other British colonies was immediately involved in World War II when after Germany invaded Poland, Britain declared war on Germany (September 1939). He had several narrow escapes. The personalities include a soldier who fought for the English regiment in WWII, a pilot who joined the ATS, plus other individuals who were in the ground crew in the RAF. This is an introduction to a number of short blogs on sources for researching Caribbean service personnel in the First World War. Their Own Stories Top of page : Connie Mark (née Macdonald), Auxiliary Territorial Service (Jamaica) Connie Mark, BEM, was brought up in Kingston, Jamaica. A collection of photographs taken by a US soldier in Trinidad and Tobago from 1943 to 1944 provides a fascinating look at the nation during this period. Around 6,000 West Indians served with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air At the outbreak of the First World War there were Caribbean and people of Caribbean descent already serving in the British army in British regiments and the West India Regiment, the Royal Navy and the merchant navy. I flew to a special hole we had in the North Sea, which no allied shipping ever went near, and dropped my big one. The Regiment left the USA for Oran, in North Africa, in June 1944. The Caribbean Regiment (also known as the Carib Regiment) was a unit of the British Army during World War II. If you ever wonder why the history books fail to acknowledge the African Caribbean involvement in World War 2 , watch this program tonight . "The trick," he explained, "was to wait until the enemy was right on your tail and, at the last minute, cut the engine, sending your lumbering Lancaster into a plunging dive, letting the fighter overshoot harmlessly above.". For Africa, World War II began on Oct. 3, 1935. Oran was handed over to Free French Forces before their arrival, and the Regiment went on to Italy in July 1944, where it was employed in general duties behind the front line. They were segregated from the white soldiers and treated like 2nd class citizens. Giuseppe Finzi torpedoed Skane and oil tankers Melpomere and Charles … The Caribbean in Wartime The Panama and Caribbean defenses felt the initial impact of war chiefly in the shape of repercussions from Washington. Soldiers of the Caribbean: Britain's forgotten war heroes.....Fighting for King and Empire: Britain's Caribbean Heroes, which airs at 21:00 BST on 13 May BBC Four. We were British! But my own experience, together with that of most of my colleagues, showed that whenever one [black person] arrived anywhere, he was always welcomed and treated well. It originated with a project for a memorial to Caribbean Royal Air Force veterans of World War II who arrived in Britain in 1948 on the MV Empire Windrush; this was an extension of the commemorative plaque and sculpture scheme run by the Nubian Jak Community Trust to highlight the historic contributions of Black and minority ethnic people in Britain. African, Indian, Caribbean and other colonial troops and personnel played a crucial role in supporting the Allied cause in World War Two. The Battle of the Caribbean refers to a naval campaign waged during World War II that was part of the Battle of the Atlantic, from 1941 to 1945. However, the exact figure has been disputed, with the Soviets estimating the number to be about 20 million (approximately 13.7% of the population at the time). Force, in roles from fighter pilots to bomb aimers, air gunners to ground staff and administration. When Britain called on the Caribbean for support in World War Two, more than 10,000 men and women crossed the Atlantic in response. Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Royal Gazette: Bermuda's losses in the Second World War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caribbean_Regiment&oldid=967450621, Military units and formations of the British Empire in World War II, Military units and formations of Barbados in World War II, Military units and formations of British Leeward Islands in World War II, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 July 2020, at 09:36. At the end of a raid we came back, had parties, checked up to see who were lost and heartlessly said things like: "Oh, Ill have his girlfriend, or his bike, if he isnt coming back.". 16,000 West Indians volunteered for service alongside the British during the Second World War. They sank shipping in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico and attacked coastal targets in the Antilles. So much so, … The Caribbean Regiment (also known as the Carib Regiment) was a unit of the British Army during World War II. Almost every country in the world participated in World War II.Most were neutral at the beginning, but only relatively few nations remained neutral to the end. He loved playing tricks, joyriding and paying unauthorised visits to friends on airfields all over England. When you arrived anywhere as a black man you were treated like a teddy bear. He replied: "Weve just passed it." I was given a decent Methodist upbringing. But when asked what he wanted to do, he replied at once: "Retrain as a pilot!" We depended on boats bringing things in. We didnt grow up with any Jamaican thing - we grew up as British. German U-boats and Italian submarines attempted to disrupt the Allied supply of oil and other material. Nearly 10,000 West Indians travelled and joined the army in Britain. I can tell you, a lot of people got their eyebrows singed! Heroes Of The Caribbean (WW2 Documentary) | Timeline A Channel 4 film about West Indian ex-servicemen and women who served in the British forces in both world wars. Caribbean air force personnel received 103 decorations. I was carrying a 12,000 pound (6,000 kilogram) bomb destined for some German shipping. Two, they coped with. It was the British influence. ", In 1942 Billy Strachan became a bomber pilot. And thats why I joined up in the ATS and went into the British Military Hospital at Kingston.. Episode 2 of the West Indies at War, a four part feature created for the Parliament Channel by Savant Films highlighting the perspective of West Indians who participated in World War 1. Here’s a TV programme that deserves a big audience this week as we continue to mark the 70th anniversary of VE day: Fighting for king and empire: Britain’s Caribbean heroes. It was a foggy night, with visibility about 100 yards (90 metres). Some of the Caribbean soldiers had already trained for deployment to the Pacific. Asked how he dealt with racial remarks and prejudice in the war, Billy answered: "It was there, all right. I adored them. With more experience, and a generally higher degree of education, many of the Bermudian men were made non-commissioned officers and distributed around the regiment. Yet there is evidence that some Caribbean soldiers were involved in actual combat in France. Black soldiers served in both World Wars in the British military and fighting for the allies, with many paying their own passage from the Caribbean to serve for their “mother country” as it was then known. Caribbean Women in WW2 Britain. We were stationed in Lincolnshire and our flight path was over Lincoln Cathedral. I asked my engineer, who stood beside me, to make sure we were on course to get over the top of the cathedral tower. At Cranwell Billy had his first batman, a man who had been batman to King George VI. F/O Errol Walton Barrow, Navigator RAF World War II and Prime Minister of Barbados BajanThings Posted on 12th March 2019 by Burt's Jnr 26th July 2020 This is the story of statesman and first Prime Minister of Barbados: Errol Walton Barrow covering the period 1940 to 1947 while he was a Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve (RAFVR). As a crew, we did everything together. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. In 1946, it returned to the West Indies and was disbanded. Germany was later on joined by Japan and Italy to suppress the rest of the world, they were known as the Axis powers. The ATS and went into the British military Hospital at Kingston. seven hours.... Wingtips, to the coast of America is often a tendency to think exclusively of men wonder why history... 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